Active and Passive Voice Rules-Active and Passive voice के रूल्स क्या है इन हिंदी?

Active and Passive Voice Rules : – Definition: Voice is the form of the verb that indicates whether a person or a thing does something, or something has been done to a person or thing Verb का वह गुण Voice कहलाता है जिससे Subject द्वारा कार्य करने अथवा उसके लिए किए गए कार्य का पता चलता है। active and passive voice in hindi | active and passive voice in hindi class 10 | passive voice in hindi examples | active voice in hindi | present indefinite tense active and passive voice in hindi. जैसे-

  • He kills a snake. (यहां ‘He’ subject है)
  • A snake is killed by him (यहां Snake subject है)

Active and Passive Voice Rules

Active and Passive Voice Rules
Active voice and Passive in Hindi rules

इन वाक्यों से पता चलता है कि दोनों का अर्थ एक ही है परन्तु पहले वाक्य में Subject द्वारा कार्य किया जाता है और दूसरे वाक्य में Subject पर Verb के कार्य का प्रभाव पड़ता है। अत: Voice निम्नलिखित दो प्रकार की होती हैं।

  1. Active Voice
  2. Passive Voice

Active Voice में Subject द्वारा कार्य किया जाता है और इस कार्य को प्रधानता दी जाती है। Passive Voice में Subject कार्य नहीं करता है। बल्कि किसी अन्य के द्वारा किए कार्य का प्रभाव इस पर पड़ता है। निम्नलिखित वाक्यों का अध्ययन कीजिए-

Active VoicePassive Voice
Ram reads a book.A book is read by Ram.
They pluck flowers.Flowers are plucked by them.
He killed a bird.A bird was killed by him.
I write a letter.A letter is written by me.
Active and Passive Voice Rules

इन वाक्यों से ज्ञात होता है कि Active Voice में Subject स्वयं कार्य करता है तथा Passive Voice में Subject Verb के कार्य से प्रभावित होता है।

Note- 1. Active Voice में twelve Tenses होते हैं जबकि Passive Voice केवल eight Tenses की ही बनाई जातो Present Perfect Continuous, Past Perfect Continuous, Future Continuous Future, Perfect Continuous Tense के वाक्यों की Passive Voice बनाना सम्भव नहीं है।

2. Intransitive Verbs वाले वाक्यों की Passive Voice नहीं बन सकती क्योंकि इनमें Object नहीं होता है।

ACTIVE VOICE से PASSIVE VOICE बनाने के सामान्य नियम ( ACTIVE VOICE से PASSIVE VOICE Rules )

Active Voice को Passive Voice में बदलने के मुख्य नियम इस प्रकार हैं

  • Active Voice Object Passive Voice Subject Active Voice Subject को Passive Voice का Object बना देते हैं।
  • नए Object से पहले by का प्रयोग करते हैं।
  • Tense के अनुसार Helping Verb का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
  • Active Voice में प्रयुक्त Main Verb की Third Form का प्रयोग करते हैं।
  • यदि Active Voice का Object Objective Case का कोई Pronoun होता है तो उसे निम्न प्रकार Subject में बदला जाता है-
MeI
YouYou
HerShe
ThemThey
UsWe
HimHe
ItIt
WhomWho

Active Voice से Passive Voice बनाते समय विभिन्न Tenses में निम्न प्रकार परिवर्तन होते हैं

PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE

इस Tense में नए Subject के अनुसार is are, am के साथ Main Verb की Third Form प्रयोग की जाती है। 1 के साथ am, He/ She It तथा Singular Nouns के साथ is और We You They तथा Plural Nouns के साथ are का प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसे-

Active VoicePassive Voice
Everybody loves me.I am loved by everybody.
He catches them.They are caught by him.
I call the servants.The servants are called by me.

Negative Sentences – Negative वाक्यों में is, are, am के बाद not का प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसे-

Active VoicePassive Voice
I do not like mango.Mango is not liked by me.
They do not help me.I am not helped by them.
He does not love her.She is not loved by him.

Interrogative Sentences – Interrogative वाक्यों का Passive Voice is, are, am से प्रारम्भ होता है और वाक्य के अन्त में Question Mark’ ?’ लगाया जाता है। यदि Active Voice में when, where, why अथवा how आया हो उसे is, are am से पहले लिखते हैं। जैसे –

Active VoicePassive Voice
Do you play cricket?Is cricket played by you?
Do I help him?Is he helped by me?
When do you read the book?When is the book read by you?
Where does they put the shoes?Where are the shoes put by them?

यदि Active Voice में What से प्रश्न बना हो तो वह Object का कार्य करता है तथा Passive Voice में वह Subject बन जाता है और इसे Helping Verb से पहले लिखा जाता है। इसी प्रकार यदि Which के बाद Noun आया हो तो Helping Verb सदैव उस Noun के बाद लिखा जाता है। जैसे-

Active Voice Passive Voice
What do you eat?What is eaten by you?
Which dress do you like?Which dress is liked by you?

यदि Active Voice में Who या Whom से प्रश्न आरम्भ हुआ हो तो Passive Voice में Who को By whom तथा Whom को Who में बदल दिया जाता है। जैसे –

Active VoicePassive Voice
Who calls you.By whom are you called?
Whom do they beat?Who is beaten by them?

PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

इस Tense में नए Subject के अनुसार is being/are being/am being के Main Verb की Third Form का प्रयोग किया जाता है। I के साथ am being, He/She/It और Singular Nouns के साथ is being तथा You, We, They और Plural Nouns के साथ are being का प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसे-

Active VoicePassive Voice
He is reading a book.A book is being read by him.
They are not writing a letter.A letter is not being written by them.
Is he learning a lesson?Is a lesson being learnt by him.
What am I doing?What is being done by me?

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

इस Tense में नए Subject के अनुसार have been/has been के साथ Main Verb की Third Form का प्रयोग किया जाता है। I, We, You, They तथा Plural Nouns के साथ have been तथा He, She, It और Singular Nouns के साथ has been का प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसे-

Active VoicePassive Voice
They have eaten the food.The food has been eaten by them.
You have not completed your work.Your work has not been completed by you.
Has she shut the door?Has the door been shut by her?
Who has broken the window?By whom has the window been broken?

PAST INDEFINITE TENSE

इस Tense में नए Subject के अनुसार was/ were के साथ Main Verb | Third Form का प्रयोग किया जाता 11, He, She, It 3 Singular Nouns was a We, You, They 3 Plural Nouns were का प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसे-

Active VoicePassive Voice
He taught you.You were taught by him.
We did not play cricket.Cricket was not played by us.
Did you love her?Was she loved by your?
When did they beat you?When were you beaten by them?

PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

इस Tense में नए Subjects के अनुसार was being/were being के साथ Main Verb की Third Form का प्रयोग किया जाता है। I, He, She, It और Singular Nouns के साथ was being तथा We, You, They और Plural Nouns के साथ were being का प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसे-

Active VoicePassive Voice
He was eating the food.The food was being eaten by him.
They were not playing cricket.Cricket was not being played by them.

PAST PERFECT TESNE

इस Tense में सभी Subjects के साथ had been तथा Main Verb की Third Form का प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसे-

Active VoicePassive Voice
They had ploughed the field.The field had been ploughed by them.
The parrot had not made holes in the tree trunk.Holes in the tree trunk had not been made by the parrot.
Who had thanked me for the help?By whom had I been thanked for the help?

FUTURE INDEFINITE TENSE

इस Tense में Subject के अनुसार Shall be/Will be के साथ Min Verb की Third Form का प्रयोग जाता है। I और We के साथ shall be तथा अन्य सभी Subjects के साथ will be का प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसे-

Active VoicePassive Voice
I shall beat you.You will be beaten by me.
He will give me a pen.I shall be given a pen by him.
or
A pen will be given to me by him.

FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

इस Tense में I, We के साथ shall have been तथा Main Verb की Third Form जबकि अन्य सभी कर्ताओं के साथ will have been तथा Main Verb की Third Form का प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसे-

Active VoicePassive Voice
I shall have told you about my future plan.You will have been told by me about my future plan.
Cricket will not have played by them.Cricket will not have been played by them.
Who will have killed the bird?By whom will the bird have been killed?

USE OF MODAL AUXILIARIES

Modal Auxiliaries वाले वाक्यों को Modals के बाद be तथा Verb की Third Form लगाकर Passive Voice: में बदला जाता है। जैसे-

ACTIVE VOICESPASSIVE VOICES
I can eat this apple.This apple can be eaten by me.
He could not lend you fifty rupees.You could not be lent fifty rupees by him.
or
Fifty rupees could not be lent to you by him.
Must I play cricket?Must the cricket be played by me?
We should write a letter.A letter should be written by us.
You may read this book.This book may be read by you.
Would you not help me?Would I not be helped by you?
We ought to do our duty.Our duty ought to be done by us.

IMPERATIVE SENTENCES

Imperative Sentences को Active से Passive बनाने के लिए सबसे पहले ‘Let’ लिखा जाता है Subject फिर be तथा अंत में Verb की Third form जाती है। Please और Kindly को हटाकर उसके स्थान पर भाव के अनुसार you are requested to अथवा you are ordered to आदि लिखा जाता है। जैसे-

Active VoicePassive Voice
Open the door.Let the door be opened.
Let him write a letter.Let a letter be written by him.
Kindly grant me leaves.You are requested to grant me leaves.
Stand up.You are ordered to stand up.

PASSIVE VOICE से ACTIVE VOICE में बदलने के नियाम

आप Active से Passive बनाने के नियम पढ़ चुके हैं। Passive से Active बनाने के लिए इन नियमों को उलट कर प्रयोग किया जाता है। जैसे-

  1. Passive बनाने के लिए जिन शब्दों को जोड़ा गया था उन्हें Active बनाते समय हटा देते हैं
  2. Subject को Object और Object को Subject में बदलकर इसके अनुसार Verb को भी बदल दिया जाता है।
  3. By को हटाकर इसके बाद आने वाले Noun अथवा Pronoun को Active Voice का Subject बना देते हैं।
  4. यदि By के बाद में Objective case का Pronoun हो तो उसे Subject में बदलते समय उसका Nominative Case प्रयोग करते हैं अर्थात् me को I us को we, them, को they, him को he तथा her को she में बदल देते हैं। जैसे
Passive VoiceActive Voice
A book is written by me.I write a book.
He was being helped by you.You were helping him.
Let the door be shut.Shut the door.
You are ordered to sit down.Sit down.
Can a letter be written by you?Can you write a letter?

यह भी पढ़े –